P.SI.1. Know how to perform at least one major version of the scientific method (e.g., steps that include identification of a problem,
hypothesis formulation and prediction, performance of experimental tests, analysis of data, developing conclusions, and reporting
results) and understand the limitations of any single scientific method.
P.SI.2. Know that scientists cannot always control conditions when obtaining evidence, and when they are unable to do so for ethical or
practical reasons, they try to observe as wide a range of natural occurrences as possible to be able to discern patterns.
P.SI.3. Recognize the cumulative nature of scientific evidence.
P.SI.4. Recognize the use and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality.
P.SI.5. Distinguish between a guess, hypothesis and theory as these terms are used in science.
P.SI.6. Plan and conduct scientific investigations to explore new phenomena, to check on previous results, to test how well a theory
predicts, and to compare different theories.
P.SI.7. Use hypotheses to choose what data to pay attention to and what additional data to seek and to guide the interpretation of the data.
P.SI.8. Identify and communicate the sources of error inherent in experimental design.
P.SI.9. Identify discrepant results and identify possible sources of error or uncontrolled conditions.
P.SI.10. Select and use appropriate tools and technology to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data. Focus on
manual graphing, interpreting graphs, and mastery of metric measurements and units, with supplementary use of computers and
electronic data gathering when appropriate.
P.SI.11. Formulate and revise explanations using logic and evidence.
P.SI.12. Analyze situations and solve problems that require combining concepts from more than one topic area of science and applying
those concepts.