Physics Abstract AmusementParkRide.pdf Construct a model of an amusement-park swing ride that uses centripetal force. Analyze the forces acting on the model while it is in motion. Atoms moving.pdf Show how colored particles spread throughout a colorless liquid without being stirred or shaken. Bicycle Gears.pdf Discover how the arrangement of gear wheels and chain and the use of a range of gearing, can reduce the amount of work done by a bicyclist. Bouncing Ball.pdf Identify a mathematical expression of a direct relation between two observed physical events—the drop height and average bounce height of a ball—and test the equation's ability to predict changes. Chemical Pollution.pdf Discover the buffering capacity of a local water supply and how it can reduce the damage to aquatic life caused by acid rain and chemical pollution. Does Your Town Have Acid Rain?.pdf Measure the acidity of local precipitation using a pH meter. Dust in the Air.pdf Collect samples of air particles to test the hypothesis that air pollution is greater at sites closest to traffic. Eutrophication—Using Up Oxygen in Water.pdf Investigate the process of eutrophication. Garden Hose Bugle.pdf Explore the relationship between the length of a column of vibrating air in a garden hose, the frequencies of sound it produces, and the pitches heard by the experimenter. Growing Crystals.pdf Explore the formation of different types of crystals derived from evaporating alum and salt solutions. Half-Life Dating.pdf Construct a model that demonstrates the principle of half-life dating using red and black licorice sticks. Heat Absorption by Gases.pdf Compare the heat absorption of air (made up mainly of nitrogen and oxygen) with that of carbon dioxide. Hot Box.pdf Investigate the processes of heat conduction and energy conservation and determine relative R values for common household materials. How fast is your car?.pdf Determine the speed of a toy car after it rolls down a ramp and observe how changing the height and angle of the ramp affects the car's speed. Machine-Energy.pdf Investigate the relationship between work and friction between an inclined plane (simple machine) and a wood block. Test the theory of the conservation of energy to see if the amount of work put into the machine differs from the amount of work it puts out Making a Solar Collector.pdf Explore the potential of the sun's energy by building a solar collector. Measuring Air Pressure.pdf Make a barometer to measure air pressure over a week and record relevant weather characteristics. Measuring Quartz Crystals.pdf Measure the interfacial angles of quartz crystals using an easy-to-assemble goniometer. Parachutes.pdf Construct parachutes to understand the concept of drag and its relationship to rate of descent. (Includes historical information.) Parallel Circuits.pdf Calculate the current (amps), voltage (volts), resistance (ohms), and power (watts) generated in a parallel electrical circuit. Pitching speed.pdf Design an apparatus to calculate the pitching speed of a softball, then use the results to validate the principles of the conservation of momentum and energy. Projectiles and Gravity.pdf Calculate the trajectory of a ball launched from a U-shaped track. Also, use knowledge of projectile motion to predict the horizontal and vertical position of the ball in mid-flight. Rain Quantity.pdf Construct rain gauges to measure rainfall at different sites. Refraction and Total Internal Reflection.pdf Observe the effects of refraction and the total internal reflection of light using a penny, water, and various drinking cups. Series Circuits.pdf Calculate the current (amps), voltage (volts), resistance (ohms), and power (watts) generated in a series electrical circuit. Settling Rate and Layering of Various-Sized Particles.pdf Discover the relationship between particle size and settling rate using various sized beads. Simple Pendulum.pdf Examine the behavior of a simple pendulum and determine the effects of changes in amplitude, pendulum length, and mass on the period of the pendulum. Soil Nutrients and Plant Growth.pdf Discover the effect of different nutrients on plant growth. Speak to Me.pdf Construct a working loudspeaker and understand how the principles of electromagnetism cause the individual parts to work together and produce sound. Surprises with Light.pdf Investigate what happens when light is transmitted through different transparent substances. The Long Profile-Rivers.pdf Construct a model for a river could showing an upper course with a steep gradient, then slope more gently as a middle course, and finally flattening out in the lower course. The Weird Behavior of Cold Water.pdf Explore how temperature and salinity interact to affect the behavior of water. Traffic Congestion.pdf Use a Traffic Intensity Index to measure the average waiting time in the flow of traffic. Transistors in Use.pdf Make four small circuits using various electronic components to give you an insight into the use of electronic systems. Urban Neighborhood- An Environmental Profile.pdf Test the hypothesis that environmental quality will vary between different neighborhoods in your town or city. Using a Pendulum to Measure Gravity's Acceleration.pdf Obtain experimental values of periods for pendulums of different lengths and graph the data to calculate the value of gravity. Wind Station.pdf Construct a wind vane and use it to record wind directions over a week.